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Are equilibrium multichannel networks predictable? The case of the regulated Indus River, Pakistan
Carling, P. A.1,3; Trieu, H.1,7; Hornby, D. D.2; Qing, Huang He4; Darby, S. E.1; Sear, D. A.1; Hutton, C.2; Hill, C.2; Ali, Z.5; Ahmed, A.5; Iqbal, I.5; Hussain, Z.6
2018-02-01
Source PublicationGEOMORPHOLOGY
ISSN0169-555X
Volume302Pages:20-34
Corresponding AuthorCarling, P. A.(PACarling@soton.ac.uk)
AbstractArguably, the current planform behaviour of the Indus River is broadly predictable. Between Chashma and Taunsa, Pakistan, the Indus is a 264-km-long multiple-channel reach. Remote sensing imagery, encompassing major floods in 2007 and 2010, shows that the Indus has a minimum of two and a maximum of nine channels, with on average four active channels during the dry season and five during the annual monsoon. Thus, the network structure, if not detailed planform, remains stable even for the record 2010 flood (27,100 m(3) s(-1); recurrence interval > 100 years). Bankline recession is negligible for discharges less than a peak annual discharge of 6000 m(3) s(-1) (similar to 80% of mean annual flood). The Maximum Flow Efficiency (MFE) principle demonstrates that the channel network is insensitive to the monsoon floods, which typically peak at 13,200 m(3) s(-1). Rather, the network is in near similar to equilibrium with the mean annual flood (7530 m(3) s(-1)). The MFE principle indicates that stable networks have three to four channels, thus the observed stability in the number of active channels accords with the presence of a near-equilibrium reach-scale channel network Insensitivity to the annual hydrological cycle demonstrates that the timescale for network adjustment is much longer than the timescale of the monsoon hydrograph, with the annual excess water being stored on floodplains rather than being conveyed in an enlarged channel network The analysis explains the lack of significant channel adjustment following the largest flood in 40 years and the extensive Indus flooding experienced on an annual basis, with its substantial impacts on the populace and agricultural production. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
KeywordIndus River: river bank erosion Channel stability Anabranch Maximum flow efficiency
DOI10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.09.021
WOS KeywordCHANNEL BIFURCATION ; SEDIMENT LOAD ; PATTERNS ; CLASSIFICATION ; SENSITIVITY ; ADJUSTMENT ; AVULSIONS ; HISTORY ; IMPACT ; REGIME
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding ProjectFAO contract[LoA/TF/PAK/2011/TCESP] ; Chinese Academy of Science ; UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)[NE/JO21970/1]
Funding OrganizationFAO contract ; Chinese Academy of Science ; UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
WOS Research AreaPhysical Geography ; Geology
WOS SubjectGeography, Physical ; Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
WOS IDWOS:000425200300003
PublisherELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.igsnrr.ac.cn/handle/311030/56989
Collection中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所
Corresponding AuthorCarling, P. A.
Affiliation1.Univ Southampton, Geog & Environm, Southampton, Hants, England
2.Univ Southampton, GeoData, Geog & Environm, Southampton, Hants, England
3.Henan Univ, Coll Environm & Planning, Keifeng 475004, Henan, Peoples R China
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geog Sci & Nat Resources Res, Key Lab Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Proc, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
5.Pakistan Space & Upper Atmosphere Res Commiss SUP, Islamabad, Pakistan
6.Water Power & Dev Author, Islamabad, Pakistan
7.Marlborough Dist Council, 15 Seymour St,POB 443, Blenheim 7240, New Zealand
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Carling, P. A.,Trieu, H.,Hornby, D. D.,et al. Are equilibrium multichannel networks predictable? The case of the regulated Indus River, Pakistan[J]. GEOMORPHOLOGY,2018,302:20-34.
APA Carling, P. A..,Trieu, H..,Hornby, D. D..,Qing, Huang He.,Darby, S. E..,...&Hussain, Z..(2018).Are equilibrium multichannel networks predictable? The case of the regulated Indus River, Pakistan.GEOMORPHOLOGY,302,20-34.
MLA Carling, P. A.,et al."Are equilibrium multichannel networks predictable? The case of the regulated Indus River, Pakistan".GEOMORPHOLOGY 302(2018):20-34.
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