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Accounting for access costs in validation of soil maps: A comparison of design-based sampling strategies
Yang, Lin1,2; Brus, Dick J.3,4; Zhu, A-Xing2,3,5,6,7; Li, Xinming2; Shi, Jingjing2
2018-04-01
Source PublicationGEODERMA
ISSN0016-7061
Volume315Pages:160-169
Corresponding AuthorBrus, Dick J.(dick.brus@wur.nl)
AbstractThe quality of soil maps can best be estimated by collecting additional data at locations selected by probability sampling. These data can be used in design-based estimation of map quality measures such as the population mean of the squared prediction errors (MSE) for continuous soil maps and overall accuracy for categorical soil maps. In areas with large differences in access costs it can be attractive to account for these differences in selecting validation locations. In this paper two types of sampling design are compared that take access costs into account: sampling with probabilities proportional to size (pps) and stratified simple random sampling (STSI). In pps the inverse of the square root of the access costs is used as a size variable. Two estimators of MSE are applied, the Hansen-Hurwitz and Hajek estimator. In STSI optimal strata are constructed based on access costs. Simple random sampling (SI) is taken as a reference design. The sampling strategies were compared on the basis of: 1) the variance of the estimated MSE; 2) the variance of the total pointwise access costs; 3) the 95-percentile of the sampling distribution of the total access costs. The comparison was done at equal expected total pointwise access costs. The sampling strategies were compared in a simulation study and a real-world case study in Anhui, China. In the case study car travel and hiking costs were considered in computing access costs per point. The results showed that the variance of estimated MSE with pps(Hansen-Hurwitz) was larger than with pps(Hajek) and STSI. The variances of estimated MSE of pps(Hajek) and STSI were about equal and smaller than that of SI. The gain in precision compared to SI depends on the cost distribution. The larger the coefficient of variation of the costs, the larger the gain. The 95 percentile of the sampling distribution of the total pointwise access costs with STSI was smaller than with pps and SI. The gain in precision of pps(Hajek) and STSI was about 30% accounting for hiking costs only, and about 10% accounting for the sum of car travel and hiking costs in the case study. The proposed sampling strategies are of interest for surveying any soil property in areas with marked differences in access costs, not just for validation of soil maps.
KeywordProbability sampling Sampling with probabilities-proportional-to-size Stratified random sampling Optimal stratification Digital soil mapping Mean squared error
DOI10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.11.028
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding ProjectNational Natural Science Foundation of China[41471178] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[41530749] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[41431177] ; Featured Institute Construction Services Program[TSYJS03] ; National Basic Research Program of China[2015CB954102] ; Natural Science Research Program of Jiangsu, PAPD[14KJA170001] ; University of Wisconsin Madison ; One-Thousand Talents Program of China
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China ; Featured Institute Construction Services Program ; National Basic Research Program of China ; Natural Science Research Program of Jiangsu, PAPD ; University of Wisconsin Madison ; One-Thousand Talents Program of China
WOS Research AreaAgriculture
WOS SubjectSoil Science
WOS IDWOS:000424178600018
PublisherELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Citation statistics
Cited Times:3[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.igsnrr.ac.cn/handle/311030/56932
Collection中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所
Corresponding AuthorBrus, Dick J.
Affiliation1.Nanjing Univ, Sch Geog & Oceanog Sci, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geog Sci & Resources Res, State Key Lab Resources & Environm Informat Syst, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
3.Nanjing Normal Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
4.Wageningen Univ & Res, Biometris, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands
5.Nanjing Normal Univ, Sch Geog, Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Reso, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
6.State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
7.Univ Wisconsin, Dept Geog, Madison, WI 53706 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Yang, Lin,Brus, Dick J.,Zhu, A-Xing,et al. Accounting for access costs in validation of soil maps: A comparison of design-based sampling strategies[J]. GEODERMA,2018,315:160-169.
APA Yang, Lin,Brus, Dick J.,Zhu, A-Xing,Li, Xinming,&Shi, Jingjing.(2018).Accounting for access costs in validation of soil maps: A comparison of design-based sampling strategies.GEODERMA,315,160-169.
MLA Yang, Lin,et al."Accounting for access costs in validation of soil maps: A comparison of design-based sampling strategies".GEODERMA 315(2018):160-169.
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