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Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability
Meng J.; Li, L. J.; Liu, H. T.; Li, Y.; Li, C. H.; Wu, G. L.; Yu, X. F.; Guo, L. Y.; Cheng, D.; Muminov, M. A.; Liang, X. T.; Jiang, G. M.
Source PublicationPeerj
KeywordAgroecology Organic apple orchard Biodiversity management Soil bacterial diversity 16S rDNA Weed control Pest control Earthworms Eco-economic benefits apple production systems soil microbial biomass community structure diversity agriculture earthworms sustainability fumigation extraction pesticides
AbstractOrganic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a7% higher Shannon's index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal groundcover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds' Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests' weight and scarab beetle's population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m 2 (0-20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output-input ratio had been achieved in the OM. Our study clearly demonstrated that biodiversity management without chemical pollution increased the biodiversity of beneficial organisms, reduced antagonists of the fruit tree, and enhanced economic benefits of the apple orchard.
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GB/T 7714
Meng J.,Li, L. J.,Liu, H. T.,et al. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability. 2016.
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