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Impacts of the linear flowing industrial wastewater on the groundwater quality and human health in Swabi, Pakistan
Hussain, Rahib1,2,3; Khattak, Seema Anjum1; Ali, Liaqat1; Sattar, Shehla1,4; Zeb, Madeeha1; Hussain, Mian Luqman1
2021-06-01
Source PublicationENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
ISSN0944-1344
Pages16
Corresponding AuthorHussain, Rahib(rahibpcr@gmail.com)
AbstractThe present study aimed to probe the extent and mobility of contamination in wastewater and its impact on groundwater and human health in the Swabi region in Pakistan. Representative samples (n = 86) were collected from both wastewater streams and groundwater in an analogous environmental setting. The result showed that pH, color, hardness, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand, chloride, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Ca, and K in industrial wastewater were higher than the Pak-EPA (Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency) and the United State Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) devised standards. In groundwater, the concentration (mu g L-1) of trace elements, namely, Cd (1.16), Pb (17.4), Fe (12426), Mn (320), Mg (129784), Na (33630), Ca (177944), and K (9558) was significantly higher than the WHO (World Health Organization) acceptable level, showing decreasing tendency with increasing distance from the industrial zone. The study perceived that wastewater caused permanent hardness, while groundwater hardness was decreased from permanent to temporary at a distance from industries. Integrated health risk assessment revealed that Cu, Zn, and Co may cause low risk, Na, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Cr cause medium risk, whereas Cd, Fe, Mg, Ca, and K may cause a high health risk. Moreover, the average daily intake of Fe, Mn, Mg, Na, Ca, and K was comparably higher than Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Co in both adults and children. The mode of occurrence of contaminants in groundwater was due to the leaching of contaminated wastewater and the oxidation of metals. Furthermore, carbonates, chloride, and SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) precipitation have a key role in groundwater contamination and influencing the natural water quality. The study concluded that the health problems in the surrounding areas were due to the use of contaminated water for drinking and household purpose. The study suggests filtering the drinking water and treating the wastewater before releasing it into the environment.
KeywordCarbonates Health risk PLI Toxic trace elements SAR Water quality
DOI10.1007/s11356-021-13842-5
WOS KeywordRISK-ASSESSMENT ; HEAVY-METALS ; SOURCE IDENTIFICATION ; DRINKING-WATER ; SURFACE-WATER ; CADMIUM ; POLLUTION ; EXPOSURE ; CHINA ; RIVER
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding ProjectNational Centre of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
Funding OrganizationNational Centre of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
WOS Research AreaEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology
WOS SubjectEnvironmental Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000656808300007
PublisherSPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Citation statistics
Cited Times:2[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.igsnrr.ac.cn/handle/311030/164047
Collection中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所
Corresponding AuthorHussain, Rahib
Affiliation1.Univ Punjab, Coll Earth & Environm Sci, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
2.Univ Peshawar, Natl Ctr Excellence Geol, Peshawar 25130, Pakistan
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geog Sci & Nat Resource Res, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
4.Univ Swabi, Dept Environm Sci, Swabi 23561, Khyber Pakhtunk, Pakistan
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Hussain, Rahib,Khattak, Seema Anjum,Ali, Liaqat,et al. Impacts of the linear flowing industrial wastewater on the groundwater quality and human health in Swabi, Pakistan[J]. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH,2021:16.
APA Hussain, Rahib,Khattak, Seema Anjum,Ali, Liaqat,Sattar, Shehla,Zeb, Madeeha,&Hussain, Mian Luqman.(2021).Impacts of the linear flowing industrial wastewater on the groundwater quality and human health in Swabi, Pakistan.ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH,16.
MLA Hussain, Rahib,et al."Impacts of the linear flowing industrial wastewater on the groundwater quality and human health in Swabi, Pakistan".ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH (2021):16.
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