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Spatiotemporal variations and developments of water footprints of pig feeding and pork production in China (2004-2013)
Xie, Dong1,3; Zhuo, La2,3,4; Xie, Pengxuan1,3; Liu, Yilin1,3; Feng, Bianbian1,3; Wu, Pute2,4
2020-08-01
Source PublicationAGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT
ISSN0167-8809
Volume297Pages:14
Corresponding AuthorZhuo, La(zhuola@nwafu.edu.cn) ; Wu, Pute(gjzwpt@vip.sina.com)
AbstractThe production of nutrient-rich livestock products consumes large volumes of water while polluting aquatic systems; however, there has been little quantitative research globally on the spatiotemporal evolution of both water consumption and water pollution (based on the water footprint [WF]) for livestock products at an intra-national scale. Here we quantified the annual green, blue, and gray WFs for pig feeding and pork production, as the most important animal product in China, at the province scale in mainland China over 2004-2013, and distinguished four farming scales: scatter-feed, small-scale, medium-scale, and large-scale. The gray WF estimation is more comprehensive that pollutants in pig excreta is considered. Over the study period, the average unit consumptive (green-blue) and degradative (gray) WF of pig was 349 m(3) head(-1) and 206 m(3) head(-1), respectively. The average total consumptive and degradative WF of pig was 225.8 Gm(3) year(-1) and 133.2 Gm(3) year(-1), respectively, in China. Over time, the consumptive WFs of pig and pork increased (unit WF of pig: 8%; total WF of pig: 25 %; total WF of pork: 8%). The unit and annual gray WFs of pig increased 1% and 14 %, respectively, while the gray WF of pork remained unchanged. Spatially, there was a southward shift in provinces with large WFs over the study period. Overall, the green WF comprised a small proportion of the total WF than the blue WF. Regarding farming scales, scatter-feed systems had larger unit WFs of pigs and pork, whereas large-scale systems had the smallest unit WFs. These findings suggest that establishment of pig farms in mountainous regions far from residential areas, wider adoption of large-scale production, local cultivation of feed crops with lower WF near pig farms, and use of pig excreta as crop fertilizer would be the most conducive to water saving and quality control in China.
KeywordWater footprint Pig Farming systems Gray water China Spatiotemporal variations
DOI10.1016/j.agee.2020.106932
WOS KeywordPOLLUTION LEVELS ; FRESH-WATER ; LIVESTOCK ; RESOURCES ; TRANSFERS ; GREEN ; LOADS ; BLUE
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding ProjectNational Natural Science Foundation of China[51809215] ; National Key Research and Development Plan[2018YFF0215702] ; 111 Project[B12007]
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Key Research and Development Plan ; 111 Project
WOS Research AreaAgriculture ; Environmental Sciences & Ecology
WOS SubjectAgriculture, Multidisciplinary ; Ecology ; Environmental Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000530645900008
PublisherELSEVIER
Citation statistics
Cited Times:3[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.igsnrr.ac.cn/handle/311030/159735
Collection中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所
Corresponding AuthorZhuo, La; Wu, Pute
Affiliation1.Northwest A&F Univ, Coll Water Resources & Architectural Engn, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China
2.Northwest A&F Univ, Inst Soil & Water Conservat, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China
3.Northwest A&F Univ, Inst Water Saving Agr Arid Reg China, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China
4.Chinese Acad Sci & Minist Water Resources, Inst Soil & Water Conservat, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Xie, Dong,Zhuo, La,Xie, Pengxuan,et al. Spatiotemporal variations and developments of water footprints of pig feeding and pork production in China (2004-2013)[J]. AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT,2020,297:14.
APA Xie, Dong,Zhuo, La,Xie, Pengxuan,Liu, Yilin,Feng, Bianbian,&Wu, Pute.(2020).Spatiotemporal variations and developments of water footprints of pig feeding and pork production in China (2004-2013).AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT,297,14.
MLA Xie, Dong,et al."Spatiotemporal variations and developments of water footprints of pig feeding and pork production in China (2004-2013)".AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT 297(2020):14.
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